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Hydraulic System Composition and Working Principle

1. the composition of the hydraulic system and the function of each part

A complete hydraulic system consists of five parts, namely power components, actuator components, control components, hydraulic auxiliary components, and working medium. Modern hydraulic systems also consider the automatic control part as a part of the hydraulic system.
The function of power components is to convert the mechanical energy of the prime mover into the pressure energy of the liquid. It generally refers to the oil pump in the hydraulic system, which provides power to the entire hydraulic system. The structural forms of hydraulic pumps generally include gear pumps, vane pumps, and plunger pumps.

The function of the actuator is to convert the pressure energy of the liquid into mechanical energy, driving the load to perform linear reciprocating or rotary motion, such as hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors.
The function of control components is to control and regulate the pressure, flow rate, and direction of liquids in hydraulic systems. According to the different control functions, hydraulic valves can be divided into pressure control valves, flow control valves, and directional control valves. Pressure control valves are further divided into relief valves (safety valves), pressure reducing valves, sequence valves, pressure relays, etc; The flow control valve is divided into throttle valve, speed control valve, diversion and collection valve, etc; Directional control valves are divided into one-way valves, hydraulic control one-way valves, shuttle valves, directional valves, etc.
Hydraulic auxiliary components include oil tanks, oil filters, oil pipes and fittings, seals, pressure gauges, oil level and temperature gauges, etc.
The function of a working medium is to serve as a carrier for energy conversion in the system, and to complete the transmission of system power and motion. In hydraulic systems, it mainly refers to hydraulic oil (fluid).

2. Working principle of hydraulic system
The hydraulic system is actually equivalent to an energy conversion system, which converts other forms of energy (such as mechanical energy generated by the rotation of an electric motor) into pressure energy that can be stored in a liquid in its power section. Through various control components, the pressure, flow rate, and flow direction of the liquid are controlled and adjusted. When it reaches the execution components of the system, the execution components convert the stored pressure energy of the liquid into mechanical energy, output mechanical forces and motion rates to the outside world, or convert it into electrical signals through electro-hydraulic conversion components to meet the needs of automatic control.

Post time: Apr-01-2024